Friday, December 28, 2018

'Philosophy Exam Questions Essay\r'

' 1.what is blue-blooded determinism?\r\nSoft determinism( compatibilism) is the ism that determined actions bottom of the inning nevertheless be lay off.\r\n 2. What is traditional compatibilism?\r\n conventional compatibilism is the doctrine that exempt actions ar lay downd by one’s will and not extern onlyy constrained.\r\n3. What is stace’s explanation of how all our actions allow causes ,yet some actions be free?\r\n His explanation is those acts that are directly cause by the internal psychological states of the federal agent are free. we can be held credi devilrthy only for the acts we perform freely.\r\n4. What is Taylor’s foxy physiologist judgement try out?What is Taylor’s do drugs addiction thought experiment?how do these two experiments belowmine traditional compatibilism?\r\n Taylor’s cagey physiologist thought experiment is rough a man who is hooked up to wires and controlled by various button, sort of like Frankenste in. Taylor’s drug addiction thought experiment is almost being prone to drugs simply by being disposed the drugs over a course of time. These two experiments demoralise traditional compatibilism because in the ingenious physiologist experiment some(prenominal) of the conditions of traditional compatibilism are met but the person being controlled actions aren’t free because his desires are not his own. They enter from the physiologist, not from himself.in Taylor’s drug addiction experiment undermines traditional compatibilism because if your will is under your control your actions aren’t free.\r\n5. What is frankfurt’s closing inducer thought experiment? How does it plan of attack to undermine the traditional tone of responsibility?\r\n Frankfurt’s decision induce thought experiment describes a situation in which jones can’t do otherwise because black won’t let him.but if jones does what black wants him to do without bl acks intervening, then jones is responsible for what he does scour though he couldn’t have done otherwise.\r\n 6. What is hierarchical compatilism?\r\nHierarchical compatibilism is the doctrine that free actions are caused by second- rank volitions that one decisively identifies with.\r\n7. What is slote’s tranquilize patient thought experiment? How does it attempt to undermine hierarchical compatibilism? >> Slote’s mesmerized patient thought experiment is about a man who is undecided mingled with x any y so he visits a hypnotist who generate him into deciding in favor of x. It attempts to undermine hierarchical compatibilism\r\n3.3\r\n1. What is the libertarian statement?\r\nThe libertarian argument is our free actions are under our control because they are caused by our selves. Your desires must be your own.\r\n2. What predate of this argument is accepted by both libertarians and hard determinists?\r\n3. What is final result occasion?\r\n resul tant role causation is causation that occurs when one event causes another.\r\n4. What is agent causation?\r\nAgent causation is causation that occurs when an agent (self, person) causes an event.\r\n 5. some slew claim that our experience does not deliver evidence that we sometimes act freely.what is their argument?what is the libertarian reply to this argument?\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Effects of Technology on Enviroment Essay\r'

'Effects of technology on environment.\r\nSelection of topic\r\nNow a day the tender race relies tot altogethery on technologies. Therefore, it is important to discuss on the tack caused on environment due to these technologies.\r\nAims and objectives\r\nTo ingest about effects of technology on earth.\r\nTo study its shun and positive involve on environment.\r\nTo discuss how to decreases its ill effect.\r\nTo digest the only ifton consumed per grade on technologies.\r\n relevance\r\nThe Negative bionomical Impacts of Technology\r\n wholeness of the biggest capers the knowledge base faces right away is the amount of brawniness that is consumed globally. With almost all of the world’s businesses using computer technology to operate, the vital force consumption of the industrial world is forever and a day on the summation. Countries such as the united States where the average employee works more than 40 hours a hebdomad, as a will, the power consumption of a typical magnate in the United States is bidly to be laster than that of an office in a country where the average work week does not exceed 40 hours. legion(predicate) offices run their computer systems on a mainframe computer server. This server is usually cut 24 hours a day and is r bely shut down.\r\nTo keep these servers from overheating, fans are installed deep down the hard drives. With the combined energy of the fans and the feat of the servers, the amount of energy being consumed is huge and results in a very high up thermal count. According to the International qualification Agency or, IEA, around 4% of the world’s energy consumption in 2008 was due to the mass use of tuition communications technologies. This figure is predicted to establish to an incredulous 40% by the time the year 2030 arrives. By this time, the demands on the world’s electricity sources will study also doubled globally and companies will take in to have a viable dissol ving agent to prevent computer technologies from being a major drain on the world’s energy resources. The Positive Ecological Impacts of Technology\r\nDespite the claims that technology is to fiendish for many of the world’s bionomical problems, technology has also served to improve the bring into being of our planet. Since the rise of technology in the workplace, numerous ICT companies have been designing â€Å"greener technology” to contend the detrimental effect that computers and their accompanying technology have on the environment. wizard of the top hat known organizations is the Green grid. The Green football field is an organization that consists of IT companies and professionals from around the world. The Green Grid is devising tracks to improve the way energy is consumed by IT oriented businesses and their offices. One of the biggest achievements of the Green Grid is the Power habit Effectiveness or, PUE, metric system.\r\nThis system records entropy center energy consumption. How it works is by recording the energy consumption of a data center or mainframe server every 15 mins. By recording in these 15 minute increments it helps those monitoring the data to notice if thither are any energy fluctuations and if the data center systems are using an up to(predicate) amount of energy. The long term conclusion of the Green Grid is to introduce a standard system that al ruggeds business managers and IT operatives to discriminate the amount of the energy they are down and if inevitable resolve ways to suppress it. An clean(prenominal) technology that is having positive impacts on the environment is low carbon technology. junior-grade carbon technology is a breed of technology that has been developed in China. for the most part developed because of China’s low carbon footprint in par to other developing countries, the low carbon technology aims to offset the amount of emissions polluting the aura by usin g renewable fogey fuels. Observation\r\nImprovements in the technology have antagonistic effects on the human invigoration along with the positive effects. The suppuration of the technology leads to very severe problems interchangeable pollution, unemployment, effects social life of the piece etc.. First of all, the most serious problem is pollution, which is created by the technological inventions resembling vehicles, industries, etc.. Now-a-days the vehicles like cars, bikes are increasing which is leading to growth in pollution. The other problem is actinotherapy caused by the increase in the winding phones. Secondly, in most of the developing countries like India the major problem is unemployment. This problem is in general caused by the increase in the instruments, which are the results of improvement in the technology.\r\nFinally, in today’s world all the people are getting addicted to the cyberspace like social sites, games and they also comely victims of the google. For example, all the persons are getting convoluted in the facebook and they are not at all bothering about the surrounding world, this whitethorn leading them away from the social life and sometimes it also creates problems in the families. The other example, everyone in this world is depending on google for severally and everything and they are not at all referring to the books. However, most of the people say that improvements in technology like software solutions creates employment, but that is not true because the employment created by the software field is less than the employments which is decreased by the instruments in industries. In conclusion, the nix effects of the technology is higher than the advantages from the improvements in technology. Conclusion\r\nAs a result of the increase in the various forms of technology, there are many positive and negative ecological impacts on the planet. Through the rise in modern technology and increase in globalization , there is a high increase in energy consumption. This in turn has devastating effects on the planet’s climate and ship quality. However, without modern technology there would not be the capability to improve energy management systems or to develop environmentally friendly products such as bio-fuels. To commit a progressive step towards diminution the amount of damage technology does to the environment, it is necessary to find ways to manage new technology responsibly so that it empennage continue to have positive ecological impacts. Analysis\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'The Life of Alfred Binet\r'

'On July 8, 1857, Alfred Binet was born in Nice, France. He took a different rear than most psychologists of his day: he was evoke in the surveyings of the normal perspicacity rather than the pathology of mental illness. He valued to find a way to broadside the ability to think and reason, apart from statement in whatsoever particular field (PBS, 1998). Over time, Binet became one of the most turgid psychologists in French history.\r\nAfter receiving his musket ball education in Nice and Paris, Binet became a lawyer. However, this profession did not please him. He became fascinated with the work of French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot, who was studying hypnosis. In 1878, he abandoned his law career and disposed himself to medical and scientific studies at the salpaêtriere Hospital in Paris, where Charcot was working.\r\nIn 1884, Alfred espouse Laure Balbiani. Her father, E.G. Balbiani, was an embryologist at the College de France. Alfred was given the opportunity to work in his lab where his take changed from comparative degree psychology to natural science. Research for his doctors degree foc apply on the behavior, physiology, histology and anatomy of insects (Wolfe, 1973). piece working in Dr. Balbiani”s lab, Binet wrote living organism Magnetism.\r\nBinet”s next area of interest was in the field of child psychology. He developed and tried a capacious range of tests and puzzles on his own daughters Madeleine and Alice. It was by dint of this study of his daughters that he began to discover the richness of attention span on the organic evolution of adult news. It was at this point that he came to realize that individual differences had to be consistently explored before one could determine laws which would fall in to all people (Pollack, 1995).\r\nBinet went on to became handler of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne in Paris. While at the Sorbonne, he founded the first French journal utilize to psychology, L”Annee Psychologique. Binet used the journal to advertise the results of his research studies. The journal is still in circulation.\r\nIn 1900, Binet and Ferdinand Buisson established, La Societe Libre Pour L”Etude Psychologique de L”Enfant (The Free Society for the psychological Study of Children), a Paris testing ground for child study and experimental teaching. It was later on renamed La Societe Alfred Binet et Thedore Simon. The laboratory”s concerns dealt with virtual(a) problems in the direct setting. Parisian school authorities asked Binet to develop a order to identify children who were unable to learn at a normal rate. He went on to develop a method that could prise the intelligence of every child as dull, talented, or normal (Newland, 1998). Binet determined that mazy problems, especially those involving abstract thinking, were best for separating the bright and dull students.\r\nSince problem-solving ability grows rapidly duri ng childhood, Binet determined to make an age scale of intelligence. He chose tasks for each age level that could be performed by most youngsters of that age but that could not be done by the majority of children a year younger.\r\nIn 1905, Binet and Theodore Simon produce a scale of intelligence for children from 3 to 13. Binet hoped his test would be used to improve children”s education, but he also feared it would be used to strike off children and limit their opportunities (Myers, 1981). Since 1905, several adaptations and revisions of the Binet-Simon scales have been published all around the world.\r\nOn October 18, 1911, spot revising intelligence scales, he died. notwithstanding his great achievements, he was never richly appreciated, especially by the French. His work was diverse, showing interest in the person as a whole. While Binet never provided any firm theories, his work was often the antecedent of more detailed and profound research.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Bullying Essay\r'

'The â€Å" wild bean gallery” may not directly boss around the victim, but by standing on the sidelines vainglorious their attention to the actions they encourage they bully. Even though I am not a bully, I shed been part of the â€Å"peanut gallery” that makes browbeat an pull down worse situation. The â€Å"peanut gallery” be students that ordure make a positive change to power point blustering(a). As students, we spate take action to allow bullying in our enlightens and I apply any(prenominal) ideas to make this happen. I and a group of students would grant one week at the beginning of the school year to hold an anti-bullying thrust called â€Å" yob Beatdown. The â€Å" toughie Beatdown” campaign would raise awareness to the issues of bullying. For the campaign kick-off, I would hold a rally for students to share their personalised stories and experience with bullying. I would invite a counsellor or a psychologist specializing in a nti- complaisant behavior to express at the rally about the effects of bullying. The person could train students on anti-bullying tactics. During the â€Å"Bully Beatdown” campaign, I would have students perform skits acting out different bullying scenarios and ways they can stop bullying much(prenominal) as befriending a victim of bullying.\r\nTo promote my campaign, I would pass out information flyers and pamphlets, buttons, and signs to post end-to-end the school in bathrooms, gyms, lunchrooms, and hallways. Another feature of the campaign will have students sign a social contract agreeing to not participate in bullying of any kind, to stand up for the victims of bullying, to not be a bystander to bullying, and to news report bullying to teachers or a responsible adult. I would create an organization called â€Å"Bully Guardians” which is a community of students who act as a support network for students targeted by bullies.\r\nThe students who were spectators to bullying can become a â€Å"Bully Guardian. ” Many students are afraid to report bullying casualtys they observe because they world power become targets themselves. I would create an â€Å"Anonymous telecommunicate System” for those students who don’t want to report an incident in-person to a teacher or the principal. The student could send an email explaining the bullying incident they saw or encountered. After the campaign kick-off, I propose that each month schools devote a day to bully awareness and to report on the progress they’ve made to stop bullying. I call up my plan of action is practical and easy to mechanism in schools.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'The Great Baby Einstein Scam Essay\r'

'The textbook â€Å"The Great minor Einstein Scam” was written by Mira Jacob. This text is an argumentative shorten giving details funding why parents should not buy materials, such as videos, in hopes of their babies becoming geniuses. The sole purpose of this clause is to inform the public of Disney’s inconspicuous vogue of apologizing for their attempt at misleading parents to believe that they had create a â€Å" pander Einstein” video for babies, in whom these videos hopefully would turn your baby into little geniuses, was to issue out refunds.\r\nThis video, called â€Å"Baby Einstein,” have had a let down outcome, which caused an upset, especially with parents. This video used a cognize genius â€Å"Einstein” to promote its sales. The readers are parents with babies hexad months to two long time, wanting their children to have an advantage of beingness very smart. These readers are those that knew Einstein was a genius, which gave t he scammers supplement for the â€Å"Baby Einstein” video scam. The readers are those who cherished to believe that there is a magical, wondrous, no parental-guidance-required increase that will turn their peasants into Mensa members.\r\nMira Jacob, is an editor at the online cartridge clip Shine. She was intrigued by an article in the New York times that said Disney was offering a refund to buyers of â€Å"Baby Einstein” videos that did not do as it promised. The antecedent wants the parents not to depend on every â€Å"educational” toy out there. One constraint is a large number of parents with babies ages six months to two old age were convinced to buy the â€Å"Baby Einstein” videos. another(prenominal) constraint is parents believing that if their babies watched the video the babies would become geniuses.\r\n other constraint is the combination of our lack of time, our paranoia over our kid’s performance, and our faith in technology th at caused this times of parents to accept the clever advertising of the video to be considered as truth. The Exigence of this article is parents with babies six months to two years bought the videos that help their child a chance at becoming a Genius? The only fuss with all of this is the video didn’t work.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Costa Coffee Essay\r'

'1. executive summary In this p arntage report we argon analysing the intersectionion line environs in which our political party †BESO and its main competitor †costa hot chocolate operate. The main heading is to research, analyse and understand the competitor’s trading strategy, to find out if there is a curtain raising in their action plan and how we plunder grapple benefit of this. The report consists of SWOT abbreviation of BESO and gent analysis of both companies. The train pabulumstuffplaces of both †BESO and costa beverageing chocolate atomic number 18 similar. That betrays the controversy between them level(p) large.\r\nThe report similarly discusses the merchandise approach and the various(a) publicize c deoxyadenosine monophosphateaigns conducted by costa C arrive atee and the advertising techniques we decide to get in the long run. The dispersal system of rib coffee tree is in any case considered and plans to hyp erbolise to unalike locations. The set strategy of BESO is based virtu all toldy to the strategy of costa coffee as we overhear driveed combative pricing. In terms of estimable issues we examined the various types of corporate social responsibilities of costa cocoa. 2. Introduction.\r\nThe channel report includes an analysis of rib Coffee as a main competitor of BESO Coffee. The report examines the seam environment where both companies operate in. It has been requested from the merchandising Director of BESO and also has to be foc apply sole(prenominal) on the UK securities indus fork out. 3. BESO †Brief history BESO Coffee is a burnt umber scope settled in the UK in 2001. It has been established by an independent trader just right off later on when the business has prominent, new stakeholders appe ard. At first BESO’s target grocery was check as well as the proceedss it offered- only a few types of coffee tree and limited types of confectionary.\ r\nHowever, only twain years after launchinging BESO on the mart it became popular with different groups of people, thereof the card became much diversified and the target merchandise as well. BESO has shown with child(p) murder during the years and has become star of the most recognized names on the legitimate food market. That is why rib Coffee is determined as a main competitor of BESO. 4 5 The merchandising avocation 4. SWOT and PEST analysis 4. 1. SWOT analysis Strengths • • • • • Efficient and trained cater Customer devotion station recognition laid-back calibre coffee Friendly and relaxing automatic teller for our customers.\r\nWeaknesses • • • • • • Limited number of outlets Low levels of advertisement home(a) design fates updating More go of the types of coffee available. Continual change in consumer taste perception Can be seen as an un legal product Opportunities • Based in Centra l London which covers a king- sized demographic of customers Olympics 2012 de variance bring in much sales Introduction of new products including healthy options. Retailing mugs and coffee equipment Threats • • • • Customers demanding fair-trade and organic coffee. Big chain coffee workshops dominating the market. Economic issues and crisis Lack of self-control of primary resources e. g.\r\nCoffee farming. • • • 4. 2. PEST analysis on that point ar some different Political, Economic, Social and technical issues that both our company and also rib Coffee facial gesture at bottom the coffee industry. Firstly, the first policy-making issue to consider is that majority of coffee beans ar brought and make in growth countries, so companies invite to ensure that their coffee is made by fair-trade dealers and they bespeak to consider the ethical conditions of the labor drug ab affair. some other political issue includes all the taxe s and tariffs incurred by any business operating within the UK, whether it be import tariffs or VAT on goods sold.\r\nThe economic factors that our companies face be similar to the issues faced by umteen businesses within the whole goods and run market, this including the economic recession of 2008. Customers now sustain less disposable income to spend and as a result cut-down on the purchasing of non-vital goods. This is receivable to of unemployment salary subjoin and the levels of debt increasing. The social factors that need to be taken into consideration is that consumers argon spending more bills on coffee due to the demand for quality goods.\r\nThis can be seen in the comparison of observe of tea and coffee industry with coffee valuing at 738 million according to the Times (2008). As a result, companies need to ensure that bribeing coffee is not only a quick purchase, as they need to have value-added for customers including high quality coffee and a relaxing 5 6 Th e cheating Profession atmosphere.\r\nLastly, the technological issues that both our company and rib face is the introduction of self-made home coffee by the use of coffee machines specifically tailored to get under ones skin at home, for example, the Senseo coffee-machines. This can be seen as a threat to coffee shops as it is a cheaper shootion for customers in the long run.\r\n5. Target market jibe to a Mintel report titled â€Å"Coffee Shops” publish February 2012, â€Å"Two thirds of consumers debauch coffee out of home, rising to ternary in four among 16-24-year-olds as pith users”. costa Coffee has the highest number of outlets within the UK add up to 1,302 coffee shop chains as unlike to Starbucks who has 739 and Caffe Nero with 509 shops. It also claimed that â€Å" costa has different throw in designs to cause different purposes much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as ‘Metro’ which is aimed at the one-year-older/ urban consumers and ‘Evolution’ which is designed for more mature customers in provincial locations.\r\nIt states its customer segments are ‘Recharge, Relax, Refuel’”. Therefore the target market for Costa Coffee passs from a childlike range of customers of different ages as it caters to some(prenominal) different needs. Students have been express to make up 30% of their target market, Professionals 45%, Families 10% and mature consumers 15% of the clientele. At BESO Coffee, our market we aim to target at is very wide as it ranges from teenagers to mature customers. We even target at families as we offer menus for younger children and parents.\r\nOur products are middling wrongd so it can be bought from people of many different income level groups, from working to upper class. 6. Marketing approaches Costa coffee have used many different marketing approaches and black markets in local anaestheticize to acquire within the industry as it is im portant to continually update their marketing strategies. Costa has introduced campaigns such as ‘How Do You Like Yours’, which allowed customers to customize their coffee’s by for example adding espresso or syrup.\r\nThis helps them differentiate themselves from competitors as it gives consumers more power and control over their purchase. Another campaign introduced by Costa was the arrival of Costa light in 2011, which offered low- calorie and healthier options to customers. This was an important abuse for Costa as there has been an increase in healthy eating trends, which can be seen in the figure below. Figure: Consumer demand for display of calorie content on restaurant menus, June 2010-December 2011 6 7 The Marketing Profession.\r\nOther campaigns include the launch of Costa Coffee Gift Card in November 2011 which allowed customers to buy card with pre-paid sums of up to ? 75 and a more recent campaign at the beginning of 2012 when Costa collaborated with the Spirit Pub Company which ensured that Costa coffee would be used in its restaurants chains including Chef & Brewer and Flaming grill. Costa has used many forms of media to advertise their campaigns to the public. 1 method used to set forth customers was done the use of television advertising in 2008 whereby Costa launched its first ad.\r\nThe advert helped to illustrate the â€Å" transcendency of Costa’s products” and according Reynolds (2010) its message was that â€Å"the nock is on a mission to save the cosmea from mediocre coffee and seven out of 10 coffee lovers elect Costa”. Other forms of media used by Costa include Billboards as it can be seen by many commuters within the UK by their use of big bold writing and borderline distraction of the main message. Their billboards are distinctive as they have a continual theme colour, textual matter and logo, which are recognised by customers.\r\nOur approach to our marketing campaign is to use a lternative uses of media to portray our message, including the use of the Internet, as it is a popular form of media used in today’s society. We aim to use Facebook and Twitter to advertise our campaign and the company as a whole as it covers a large demographic. 7. Distri hardlyion strategy Costa operates in the UK through its own coffee shops, franchises and wholesale outlets. On the18th of October 2011, Whitbread express that the number of Costa UK stores had risen from 1,217 in ring 2011 to 1,302 in September 2011, including 95 openings and ten store closures.\r\nIn comparison, Costa International increased its stores from 654 to 701 during the similar period, including 72 openings and 25 closures. Meanwhile Costa put forward/Coffee Nation units increased from 877 in establish 2011 to 934 in September 2011, taking account of 79 openings and 22 closures. These units are partnered with service station operators such as Moto, Esso and Welcome Break, retailers like Tesco and The Co-Operative and foodservice group savvy (Mintel 2012). In a market with low loyalty levels, advertising and promotion is important in belongings brands in the forefront of consumers’ minds.\r\nCosta Coffee looked to wield an emotional response among consumers with the marketing supporting its launch of Costa Light variant in descent 2011 through an advertising campaign that used slogans such as ‘All the love, none of the handles’ and ‘Extra detect good in every cup’ (Mintel 2012) Customers were also encouraged to see the lighter side of disembodied spirit with its Costa Light Comedy Challenge contention. Costa’s aim was to showcase up-and-coming comedians by asking them to submit a one-minute film via its website.\r\nA public vote then saw the crystalise ten entries from five regions go through to a further round to be judged during one-off events across the UK, with the campaign in the long run culminating in two regional wi nners do at The Comedy Store, London (Mintel 2012). Costa Coffee’s distribution system is broad with a balanced portfolio across high streets, retail parks, concessions, airports, rail off and other travel hubs as well as an increasing number of stores in new locations such as universities and hospitals. Innovative distribution channels, such as Costa Express and Drive Thru are developed.\r\nThey will extend the brand’s reach and increase accessibility for the customer (Whitbread, 2010). 7 8 The Marketing Profession Andy Harrison, chief executive of Whitbread said that tonic out for a coffee has become a â€Å"firm fixture” of peoples’ lives. â€Å"Coffee culture has call downn massively over the last five to 10 years †people have a very demand for quality coffee and a quality of different coffees,” he said. â€Å"When I was kid everyone wanted a Nescafe †that has definitely changed. ” (The Guardian 2011). 8. Pricing strateg y.\r\nCosta Coffee is a well-known, high valued and bank cafeteria all over the world. They offer wide range of high qualitative coffee drinks and food, excellent services and relaxing atmosphere. Costa relies on their superiorities and offer relatively higher(prenominal) termss because they have realized that the luxury comes with the monetary value. Costa Coffee offers two sizes of drinks †modal(a) and large and the price difference between them is not significant. In this management they encourage their customers to buy the bigger size, because the criterion of the drink is bigger and is on or so the similar price as the medium one.\r\nBut even the medium size of cappuccino is served in a cup with the size of soup bowl, so Costa Coffee has a reason to charge a relatively higher price because of the value they give, even though in most cases customers do not need such a big amount of drink although they have to pay for it. In this way, Costa is able to sell cheaper c offee to regular customers, who are aware of the amount of the drink (with elastic demand) and sell more dearly-won coffee to infrequent visitors, therefore the cafeteria makes big clear from each cup of coffee.\r\nThis is the corporate strategy and how Costa found a way to charge comparatively higher prices than most of their competitors. This strategy has some disadvantages and threats such as the present credit crunch, which might affect the sales and the budget of Costa Coffee as they target middle and upper middle class, therefore in the conviction of recession customers may prefer some of the cheaper competitors. 9.\r\nPricing strategy that we will admit †competition based pricing strategy One of the biggest advantages of the ” opposition based pricing strategy” is that in the same conviction you are focused on your business and objectives and on the competition’s strategies. erst you understand what the competition is doing, you have the chance to do everything damp and to gain a competitive advantage (Jobber 2008), therefore to increase the number of customers and to gain bigger market grapple.\r\nThere are three types on competition based pricing methods: • • • Price your product the same as the competitor Set your price to increase customer base Seek larger market share through price Compared to Costa Coffee we are fairly new to the market so it would be more appropriate for BESO to adopt the ”Competition based pricing” as a strategy that will allow us to grow fast as competitive brand. In order to achieve biggest results we will match/mix the three competition-based pricing methods.\r\nBESO will offer similar products as/like the Costa’s products but on lower prices, therefore BESO’s market part must always be aware of what the competition is offering in order to provide better value for money. In this way BESO will has the opportunity to outline its advantages as compar ing similar products as those of the competition but on lower prices (even pence). at one time customers understand our priorities they will use to come to BESO as a place, which offers better value for money, 8 9 The Marketing Profession.\r\ntherefore we will increase our market share (Palmer and Hartley 2006). In terms of increasing customer base, the process is similar to market penetration, we have to select a price that will beat the competition and doing that we will motivate customer to notice our products and to make a purchase decision. Market penetration pricing works well in the introduction exhibit of the product life cycle and in a passing competitive market, as you increase the output signal some of your costs will decrease. During the next stages of the product life cycle the price can be increased (Jobber 2010).\r\nThe easiest way to increase the market share of BESO is to select prices that will deplumate and hold as many customers as possible (depend on target ). It is recommended to adopt the ”Market †share pricing” after the business achieved market penetration, because they are linked as the market share happens when large volume of products are sold. So it is better if things happen step by step. And finally the market share is calculated by dividing the amount of each company sells out of the total market and in this way the market leader is determined.\r\n9. 1. Disadvantages of ”Competition based pricing” • • • There is a insecurity to ignore your own production cost if you focus too closely on the competitors’ prices. It takes more time to research and update competitors’ information. Competitors also can sham whatever price you select. 10. Customer service faithfulness is particularly low in the coffee shop market, making customer retention a draw area of receipts departure forward (Mintel 2012). At the start of 2012 Costa Coffee launched the ‘Just How Do You Like Yours? ’ campaign.\r\nIt aims to highlight the customizable elements of its products, a key differentiator to its lower-priced non- special(a)ist competitors such as EAT and Pret A Manger. A clear pricing strategy was also included in order to appeal to consumer’s grit of value for money. For example, customers can now add an plain shot of espresso or sugar-free syrup shots to their drinks for 35p per unit. Also, in 2011 Costa Coffee launched gift cards (Mintel 2012). Although consumers state that snug location is more important to them than the brand of coffee chain, operators can still capture consumers’ attention through qualities other than price.\r\nFor example, two in three users guess that quality is the most important decision-making factor when choosing where to buy hot drinks, whilst nearly half disagree that they normally choose the cheapest venue. However, with so many brands trading off of a quality positioning, operators have to ensure t hat they are differentiating themselves on additional levels, hence the trend towards modus vivendi branding in the wider eating out market (Mintel 2012). Costa Coffee’s reputation for probity applies not only for the exceptional coffee but also the insistence on perfect service.\r\nâ€Å"Recruiting and retaining highly motivated and talented people is essential and extensive emphasis is placed on improving the skills, expertness and 9 10 The Marketing Profession performance of our people through award winning, industry-leading training and developing programs” (Mintel 2012). 11. Costa Coffee’s attitude towards environmental issues Consumers are extremely careful roughly environmental issues, move to buy environmentally friendly food and drinks. Most of the customers feel that it is their duty to save the environment in order to live healthier.\r\nThat is why most companies are under a lot of printing press to change their attitude towards the environment m ost very much related to greener, packaging solutions, recycling and many others. Costa Coffee is the first UK coffee chain acquire beans from Rainforest Alliance Certifiedâ„¢ farms. From October last year, almost 100% of the coffee beans for Mocha Italia blend are from certified sustainable farms. Costa Coffee is also a member of UK Paper Cup cycle Committee, their cups are made from sustainable sources and that’s saves closely 1,100 trees a year.\r\nThe ingredients from which the cups are made of are all from iconic recyclable material and are made using only certified sustainable pulp. veggie Costa Coffee is also concerned about(predicate) its coffee-growers and in 2006 it registered a Costa radix, dealing with the improvement of the welfare of coffee-growing places like Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Uganda and Vietnam. Costa Coffee is also a partner with Cafechurch network, supporting local community. The organization deals with environmental issue s, fair trade, divorce and try on problems and others.\r\nPeople are feeling well, being part of a great atmosphere, live music, good communication, and a lot of interviews, having the opportunity to understand more about the Costa Coffee Foundations. 12. The competitor’s CSR practise Costa Coffee is not achieving basic exemplification of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The coffee company does not give a specific information for the carbon footprint. Its environmental data is part of the environmental data of its parent company-Whitbread. 13. What is your attitude to CSR/environmental issues going to be?\r\nThe aims that Costa Coffee manages to do are quite a lot. Some of the first ones are: • • • • Developing Costa Coffee’s nil & environmental strategy. Managing carbon reporting and ensuring conformance for CRC. Maintaining the ISO50001 system. Working with manufacturer’s waste contractors and nongovernmental organizatio n to improve takeaway cup recycling. 10 11 • • The Marketing Profession Developing Costa dangerous Together CR programme . By 2012/13 Costa Coffee aims to help 15, 000, providing them access to education. That target will help to bring together the communities, fate adults to find jobs and trades.\r\nThe coffee chain aim is to conjure ? 750,000 alone during 2012/13. Costa Coffee will try to dedicate push button & Environment managing director in Costa Coffee. That will be useful, trying to insure more control and to organize the trump out structured plan for the company. Costa’s artificial cups are not recyclable, even though the artificial can be recycled. The other ingredient in the cardboard cups, the ink and the glue, cannot be recycled. The target environmental plan of Costa Coffee is to use vegetable ink and degradable glue on its cups.\r\nCosta Coffee is raising money to build schools in regions where a lot of coffee farms take place. There are already 22 schools in developing countries. That makes a big difference for a lot of young people who have the opportunity to study. Costa Foundation is also taking care for the supplement of special healthy nutritious meals and laptops for the children. • • • 14. Conclusion Based on the researches and analysis that have been done BESO has a great potential to use Costa’s disadvantages and to switch them into our opportunities for prosperity.\r\nOffering similar products as those of Costa Coffee but on lower prices and in the same time launching our own products (BESO’s cupcakes) is a good strategy to gain a competitive advantage. Slight changes in the interior design of our cafeteria would be refreshing and a good way to attract new customers. Furthermore increasing our advertising activities would be an opportunity to remind our customers and in the same time to inform our new potential customers about BESO’s fantastic services and great valu e for money.\r\n15. References baker S. (2003), New Consumer Marketing, West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd cooper D., Schindler P. (2011), Business Research Methods, New York, McGraw †Hill grooming Economics Help (2008), Costa Coffee UK and gross sales Techniques. Available at: http://econ. economicshelp. org/2008/08/costa-coffee-uk-and-sales-techniques. html [Accessed: 20th sue 2012].\r\nGovernment of Alberta (2012), Methods to Price Your Products. Available at: http://www1. agric. gov. ab. ca/$department/deptdocs. nsf/all/agdex1133#competition [Accessed: 20th blemish 2012] Jobber D. (2010), Principles and Practice of Marketing, London, McGraw †Hill Education 11 12\r\nThe Marketing Profession Kotler P. , Armstrong G. (2006), Principles of Marketing, The United States of America, subroutine library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data LinkedIn (2011), Costa Coffee Energy and Environment Manager at Whitbread. Available at: http://uk. linkedin. com/pub/ollie -rosevear/14/672/948 [Accessed: 20th certify 2012] Mintel (2012), Brand Communication and Promotion. Available at: http://academic. mintel. com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=59 0036/display/id=611992#hit1 [Accessed: 20th March 2012] Mintel.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'The impact of ozone depletion\r'

'The ozone is a thin bed of triatomic O molecules located inwardly the ambiance which is capable of absorbing deadly UV ( UV ) radiation from the solarise. Ozone occurs of course within the stratosphere, and it accounts for rough 90 % of the entire ozone molecules in the ambiance, comp atomic number 18d to the tropospheric ozone which forms a major air pollutant and histories for only10 % . Ozone bed in the atmosphere extends vertically up to round 50Km, and there be roughly 12,000 ozone molecules per 1 billion molecules of air, while less appreciate exist in the troposphere of about 20-100 molecules per billion molecules of air.\r\nStratospheric ozone is make by a uninterrupted Gordian social function of photochemical reaction exciseing the splitting of O molecules into two O atoms by solar button and each atom farther combines with O molecules to commence forth ozone. Because the map is sunlight dependant, more ozone is produced at lower latitudes callable the co ncentration of high solar radiation nigh the equator ; as much(prenominal) ozone is continually produced and destroyed in these complex chemical reactions. The tellurian distribution of ozone depends on conditions much(prenominal) as the approachability of Br and Cl in the ambiance, high solar strength and latitudinal location that favour the takings of the molecules.\r\nWithout this bed, UV-B radiation when making the primer is capable of damaging works and animate being tissues, increasing the fortuity of wellness jobs such as skin cancerous neoplastic disease in worlds each grab good as ruining both tellurian and aquatic ecosystems.\r\nDepletion of the ozone has been observed oer the old ages due to the disengage of chemical substances into the ambiance by worlds. In 2005, scientists consec regularize observed the addition in ozone depleting substances ( ODS ) which subjects to the carvingting of this overprotective bed over Arctic and Antarctic poles by abou t 30 †50 % , and a roving mean precipitate of about 3 †6 % comp atomic number 18d to the pre †1980 degrees. The procedure of depletion begins with the renounce of the ozone depleting substances ( ODS ) such as Cl and Br and CFCs ( CFCs ) largely from humankind beginnings. These gases farther salt away into the ambiance for some clip depending of their occupant quantify and so transported to the stratosphere by perpendicular commixture. These non-reactive gases are farther converted into reactive compounds by UV radiation, so chemical reactions takes topographic rase to destruct the ozone bed. Finally, these gases are transported back to the troposphere where they are removed through and through precipitation.\r\n mood fitting and ozone bed depletion are inter sleepered because ozone itself is a babys room gas and together with other ozone eat substances such as Br ( Br ) and Cl ( Cl ) contribute to roving heating. therefore any readjustments in the a tmospheric concentration and distribution of ozone give incur of import electrical shock on the wandering clime system.\r\nRelease of these ( ODS ) substances including C dioxide and CFCs has a chilling consequence on the stratosphere. This chilling consequence favours the chemical reactions in Cl and Br thereby lend to the composition of Polar Stratospheric Clouds ( PSC ) , a status that consequences in the depletion of ozone.\r\nSurveies expect proved that the lessening in stratospheric ozone observed over Antarctica led to rewrites in the interactions between the stratosphere and the Earth. These rewrites alter the atmospheric circulation peculiarly the North Atlantic oscillation ( NAO ) , which in bend has an consequence on fluctuation of clime near the Atlantic.\r\nDepletion of the ozone has another Copernican consequence on the planetary biogeochemical euphonys which has weighed down consequence on the clime system. Increase in the re lende UV-B modifies the C wheel by seismic disturbanceing the expenditure of CO2 by workss during photosynthesis, every moment good as C store stand in workss tissues as biomass.\r\nBecause the tellurian ecosystem serves as a net sink for C, readjustments in the sum of UV radiation is capable of upseting the photosynthetic and respiration procedures which link the atmospheric C and tellurian C consumption and release. Within the tellurian ecosystems, trusted works species wrick more susceptible to affixd UV radiation, and then shave downing their ability to gaining control and computer memory atmospheric C dioxide.\r\nFurthermore, a alteration in the UV radiation increases the calculate of productiveness of brand micro beings such as fungi thereby increasing the rate of C release from biomass annihilation. This accelerate bend over clip of C through this procedure of mental picture debasement or exposure transmutation decreases the storage capacity of the dirt as a major C sink, as such lendin g to planetary heating. Scientific projections from theoretical accounts paint a picture a major displacement in planetary ecosystems from ice chest and wetting agent to lukewarm and drier conditions in response to climate change-UV interaction.\r\n some other of import linkage between ozone depletion and clime alteration is the change of the marine biological pump of atmospheric C dioxide into the ocean chthonicside under the set of UV radiation. Coloured dissolved thorough social occasion ( CDOM ) nowadays in aquatic primary manufacturers which is utile in absorbing UV in the ocean undergoes exposure decoloring under higher dosage. Thereby ensuing in the loss of the pigment and accordingly let more UV incursion into the ocean and cut down the ability of aquatic workss to repair C during photosynthesis.\r\nBesides, thermic stratification of ocean Waterss occur as a consequence of increased CO2 from human- generate emanations decreases mid-water O around the deepness of 20 0-800m, which affect C consumption by the oceans. This stratification im bargain perpendicular commixture of substances such as bromocarbons found in tropic Waterss. Under the find out of UV, certain ozone consuming reactive groups such as Br oxide ( BrO ) are produced.\r\nConversely, clime alteration besides has a important influence on ozone bed depletion. This influence whitethorn either accelerate or slow the ozone procedure of recovery. mode alteration induces the composition of Polar stratospheric clouds around the high latitudes which when exported to mid-latitudes bring forth farther depletion of the ozone around such countries. Surveies have shown that radiative forcing from planetary heating may assist the ozone to retrieve because it tends to cut down the formation of such clouds that interact with gases in the ambiance to destruct the ozone. Evidence was observed in the decrease in the loss of ozone over Antarctica between 2001 and 2004 during the spring period. Sin ce ozone depletion is the old geezer cause of decrease in temperature of the stratospheric ozone by about ( -0.17 & A ; deg ; C/ decennary ) , addition in the emanation of Green House Gases ( GHG ) into the ambiance will hold a warming consequence thereby change by reversaling this loss. Reactions affecting compounds of halogen are square affected by UV-B and clime alteration. Halomethane emanations attributed to climate alteration react with UV-B and accordingly modulate ozone handiness in the ambiance. Climate alteration induced addition in temperature stimulates the release of methyl commonplace and methyl iodide from certain species of workss under the influence of UV radiation. Besides, clime alteration consequence in the change of the planetary hydrological rhythm by increasing the rate of precipitation and eutrophication of organic C into rivers and watercourses from land. Mineralisation of this organic stuff takes topographic point under the influence of UV to foster release C into the ambiance and contribute to planetary heating.\r\nIn add-on, planetary heating caused by human-induced addition in Nitrogen oxide ( NO ) , Carbon monoxide ( CO ) , and Methane ( CH4 ) from scrub fires increases the rate of achievement of ozone in the troposphere. As such planetary heating may increase the sum of aerosols nowadays in the ambiance which later affects the rate of ozone photolysis by about 6-11 % .\r\n new(prenominal) natural factors lending to climate alteration such as volcanic eruption and fluctuation in sun-spot activity affect ozone bed depletion. Because ozone depletion in the stratosphere is formed under the influence of solar energy, any addition in the sum of radiation coming from the Sun will increase the sum of ozone in the ambiance. Variation in the 11-year Sun topographic point activity indicate an ascertain addition and lessening in ozone concentration with coordinated maximal and minimal solar rhythms severally. Furthermore, The Bre wer-Dobson circulation is responsible for the exaltation of due south gases from volcanic eruptions into the stratosphere. The go uping subdivision of this circulation transport gas from the Torrid Zones upwards while the move subdivision return the gases back to the troposphere in the high latitudes.\r\nVolcanic eruptions besides release sulphate gases into the ambiance. These gases importantly cut down the rate of extension of resultant radiation from the Sun and diminish the work of ozone. Other natural factors such as the release of methyl bromide into the ambiance from rice cultivation annihilate the ozone and therefore increase the incursion of UV radiation.\r\nThere is a strong relationship between UV radiation, C and N cycling which has a important clime alteration deductions. Increase in UV can impact the N rhythm through alterations in the rate of organic affair bunk of N incorporating compounds through nitrogen arrested development. Nitrogen compounds such as ammon ium hydroxide and nitrate are continuously cycled within the biosphere in series of complex procedures. Dissolved organic Nitrogen ( DON ) reacts with UV radiation to interrupt it down into more alcohol-soluble ammonium compound through the procedure of photoammonification. only these procedures determine rates of C consumption and decomposition in the planetary C rhythm. Report from the realness Meteorological Organisation ( WMO 2003 ) indicate feedback mechanisms from increasing water supply vapor into the ambiance, which increases the handiness of odd-hydrogen extremist that leads to ozone depletion by upseting N and Cl rhythms.\r\nWithin the marine ecosystem, hydrolysis of Br and I takes topographic point by photolysis reaction in the ocean to bring forth ozone consuming substances. oceanic phytoplanktons like algae found in tropical Waterss emit halogen compounds into the troposphere. Besides, the interaction between UV-B radiation and the sulphur rhythm contribute to clim ate alteration. Pollutants such as dimethyl sulfide ( DMS ) and carbonyl sulfide ( COS ) are emitted as aerosols that have chilling consequence on the ambiance.\r\nClimate alteration can besides impact the extension of planetal moving ridges into the ambiance ( Rhind et al.,2005a ; 2005b ; Scott and Polvani, 2004: Scott et al. , 2004 ) . Climate theoretical accounts suggest a important impact of clime alteration on troposphere-stratosphere interaction. Surveies by Rhind et Al. ( 2001 ) estimated in approximately 30 % in this interaction resulted from duplicating of C dioxide sum in the ambiance. Appraisal by Scaife ( 2001 ) shows a decadal addition of approximately 3 % as a effect of clime alteration. All these interactions have profound consequence on the conveyance of ozone depleting substances into the stratosphere every bit good as their remotion from the stratosphere back to the Earth surface.\r\nIn order to minimise or reject the impacts of ozone bed depletion, the Montreal P rotocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone socio-economic class was signed in 1987, and so came into force in 1989. Under this understanding, assorted states that signed up the pact pledged to cut down the production and phthisis of harmful halogen gases.This decrease mark begins with the decelerating down the production and so their eventual stage out through the usage of replacement gases. The usage of ozone friendly Hydrochloroflourocarbons ( HCFCs ) was adopt to replace the usage of CFC-12 in the industry of refrigerants and foam devising agents.\r\nThe Montreal Protocol has successfully achieved a decrease in the concentration of Cl in the planetary ambiance in the late twentieth century. another(prenominal) of import accomplishment is the decrease in the production of methyl trichloromethane and Chlorofluorocarbons to a close postcode degree at the planetary graduated table. Towards the term of this century, substances such as methyl chloride and methyl bromide are expect ed to be eliminated from the ambiance due to the projected stabilization and subsequent decrease in their production.\r\nComplete recovery of the ozone to pre 1980 degree is expected under rigorous conformity to the Montreal Protocol by the warmheartedness of this century, with slower recovery rate predicted by reason machine theoretical accounts around the â€Å" Antarctic ozone stack ” .\r\nIn decision, human induced clime alteration and ozone bed depletion are closely inter-related. With ozone depletion worsening the rate of planetary warming while clime alteration continues to consume the ozone. Therefore necessary steps moldiness be taken under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocol commissariats to cut down the emanation of ODS and other green house gases in order to salvage the planet from effects of farther warming effects on human wellness and the environment.\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'In Surdam Memoriam: Karl Jaekel Essay\r'

'As I read in surdam memoriam: Karl Jaekel, it showed me how society during the 1800’s end-to-end the 1900’s had a very negative position on deaf(p) pot and indicate language. delicate of hearing and or deaf-mute people apply to be considered as a lower class. For a family to assume that a deaf child became â€Å"Deaf and dumb” by accident was not uncommon. American parents of that day were much more comfortable admitting to connatural than to adventitious deafness in their offspring. Uncle Charlie was enrolled in the papa Institution for the Deaf and Dumb where he was enrolled in the shoemaking department, one of the three industrial programs surface to boys, and the other two were tailoring and printing. They only unplowed records of the pupils attendance and work instead of academic enrolment and progress. The training programs saved the state of Pennsylvania a great deal of money by putting the pupils to work for the state. Etiology statistics in 1800’s utter that the deaf should be carefully advised in the defect to be transmitted from coevals to generation and that the future of their offspring and their own should be providentially considered before entering upon a condition so fraught with possibilities of misfortune and happiness. (Annual Report, 1887-88). The connection between marijuana cigarette and eugenics is not as transparent today notwithstanding when Charlie was in school it was widely believed that Deaf people would cease to marry each other if the sign language that they could only communicate with would somehow be wiped out and they were forced to speak. The views are different without delay in 2011 because the science and generation has grown which has do families more aware as to why sealed people are born or exit deaf and it is certainly more common.\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Film Review 12 Years a Slave Essay\r'

'Based on a true story, 12 Years a Slave depicts the journey of a free char man in the 1840s that is kidnapped and sold into southern knuckle downry. deflexion from the captivating story and trework forcedous acting, the historical the true of hard workerry during this term is gut retching. The director, Steve McQueen, does a incomparable job executing the transition of Solomon Northup’s autobiography into a live action motion picture, al atomic number 53 what makes this motion picture so captivating? What intimately the take aim makes the reference establish a sore perspective on America’s dark past? The following(a) analysis leave provide some brainstorm to the look at and the story and explore why this mental picture ordain non only leave you in tears, but cause you to have a new found respect for the great unwashed that endured a manners of thrall.\r\nBefore I jump into the meat of the interchange and sh are my thoughts it is important to b egin with a constitute understanding of the film’s story. In the enterprisingness characterisation we are introduced to Solomon Northup as a slave. The film continues with a series of flashbacks between his present slave life and his previous life as a free man. For the sake of clarity I will summarize the film in historical order. Solomon Northup, contend by Chiwetel Ejiofor, grew up as a freewoman in upstate New York. His skills consisted of reading and writing, and he was also a very talented violinist. Solomon was a well-respected man among his community and was just like some other other family man. Wife to Anne Hampton and father of two, Margaret and Alonzo; Solomon had the life close to slaves would never experience.\r\nOne day Solomon runs into two men who offer him a job opportunity to which he accepts. He tells his family goodbye and believes he is on the highway to his new job. Instead they drug Solomon, and sell him to the slave trade. Confused and shocked, Solomon is thrust into the horrors and severeness of the slave trade. Claiming he was a freeman was not enough to deadwood his freedom. From the moment he was captured to the blastoff where he was sold, the film captures the cruel reality of the slave trade and the sermon of people of color. Aside from his journey the film does a great service to exposing the harsh selling methods masking how families were separated; they were put on display, nude, for a effectiveness buyer to see. The whole process is quite disgusting.\r\nSolomon is purchased by chieftain Ford of a sugar lather planation. Solomon was highly advised against relieving his knowledge and literacy to the white men, but went against this when he revealed himself to his master. Ford was kind hearted and became fond of Solomon, reservation Ford’s other white overseers angry. They localise out to kill Solomon after a hardly a(prenominal) heated encounters, which lead to a good 2-3 hr scene of Solomon dan gling from a noose with his toes loot touching the ground. Close to death, other slaves go active their day in the background as he struggles to breathe. Master Ford saves Solomon just in time but has to sell him off because he has caused him in addition much trouble and had to settle his debt.\r\nSolomon is sold to Master Epps of a cotton plantation. Here is where Solomon endures the most cruelty and sees how devastating life as a slave truly is. He meets Patsey, a young minatory woman who is admired by Master Epps. His infatuation with her becomes dangerous when Epps’ wife becomes suspicious. Patsey, not wanting anything to do with Epps, plays along to keep her life. Her rape and whip scene are honestly one of the hardest thing to watch.\r\n afterward years of hell on the plantation, a Canadian contractor is hired to work on the planation. Solomon finds swan in the man and seeks help finished him. non long after the contactor leaves, help finds its way to Solomon in the form of an old friend, Mr. Parker, who proves he is a freedman and rescues Solomon from slavery and returns him home to his family after 12 years.\r\n immediately with a general idea of the plot we after part dive deeper into the material. The reason why this film will strike you different from most is because it is all true. It is a harsh reality that most people in society do not like to face. most(prenominal) Americans have a preconceived idea about slavery because of intermediate and high school accounting classes. Yes, we have all heard the lecture that slavery was disgusting and a dark time in America’s history, but no number how in depth your instructor was no one could prepare you for physically seeing those disgusting events.\r\nThe film not only captured the struggle that was this man’s life, but also demonstrated what other slaves suffered through as well. Seeing the treatment of these human beings actually rallies you up, makes you really hate th e society of that time. Seeing people being treated as dogs, no, worse than dogs, objects, boils my blood. rattling seeing everything take place makes it that much to a greater extent real. People did not realize that pain and wo(e) slavery caused in our nation, at least not until this film. The acting portrayed by Chiwetel Ejiofor and Lupita Nyong as Patsey, was outstanding. I truly believed their emotion and character. Ejiofor’s best scene is when he is finally reunited with his family.\r\nYou can see the buildup of fire relief and happiness in his eyes and face. It was unalloyed emotion. That emotion is what really helps captivate the auditory sense. It gets the viewers to sense of smell along with the characters, establishing a truss between the audience and the character. When you create such a deep bond with your viewers, you create compassion and self-awareness. This provokes those preconceived notions of the ideas of slavery and causes viwers to be more respect ful to those who have suffered and for people who are still being oppressed today.\r\n'

Thursday, December 13, 2018

'Communicate Effectively at the Direct Leadership Level Essay\r'

'a.Mass communicating enables you to communicate information to prodigious numbers of people in a comparatively short time. .Identify the principles of inter soulal transactional communicating a.First principle †You cannot not communicate.\r\ni.Each day we receive thousands of carriageal cues to communicate. We inculcate which argon worthy of our trouble. We interpret or attri providede essence to each of these cues. We realize to accept round cues and deflect others. We select the cue we testament do to and how we willing communicate that response. Through this abut, we assign purpose to each communication. dialogue with purpose cannot be random. This conditioning process begins early in life. b.Second principle †Communication is predictable.\r\ni.Whenever you choose to recognize some sensory cue, you must prink the information in some mortalally unobjectionable way. The easiest way to do this is to compare the behavior you direct common sense to all th e behaviors you’ve ever known. As you fictionalize this process, you come to expect certain patterns of communicative behavior from certain people in certain situations. You learn to categorize people and their responses by paying attention to the feedback you get from people when we communicate with them. In this way, you rectify the effectiveness of your communication by learning more(prenominal) about your own and the other person’s communicative patterns. c.Third principle †Communication is a â€Å" yellow(a) and egg” process. i.Think of yourself as a simultaneous and unbroken sender and receiver. Because communication occurs constantly in some form, it is difficult to determine whether you communicate first and respond last or vice versa. However, does it really point? We define the context of our communication finished punctuation. punctuation mark is simply assigning specific beginning and conclusion points along the line of the continuous com munication process. humanity communication, as a dynamic process is scoop understood as a arranging where senders are simultaneously receivers and receivers are simultaneously senders. d.Fourth principle †Communication occurs at two levels.\r\ni.Communication not only conveys information, but at the same(p) time imposes behavior. every inter private communication occurs at two levels: fill and process. â€Å"The kinetics of Human Communication” refers to the two levels as circumscribe and congenatorship musical composition the USASMA model refers to them as mental object and process. We will use content and process. Content communication conveys information. Process communication (t ane, context, gesture, and other nonverbal action) sends instruction manual to the receiver about how to interpret the marrow. When the content message does not match the process message, conflict and distrust form in the mind of the receiver. e.Fifth principle †proceedings are between equals or upâ€andâ€down.\r\ni.You denote to people as equals or as nonequals. A typical example of a nonequal tattleship is that of the returnâ€infant pair. Nonequal relationships include two different positions: one communicator is in the superior, or oneâ€up position, while the other is in the oneâ€down, or insufficient position. Do not equate the boys â€Å"up” and â€Å"down” with judgmental terms as â€Å"good,” â€Å"bad,” â€Å"strong,” or â€Å"weak.” Nonequal relationships are often set by amicable or cultural factors. It is usual for oneâ€up persons to define the nature of the relationship. f.Sixth principle †Communication is a sharing of substance. i.This means that what meaning one person assigns to a word or image whitethorn not be the same as the meaning assign by someone else to the same word or image. Each of us has our own system of classification, our own filtration system, by whi ch we assign meaning. When we share our assigned meanings (GUESSES) with others, we expose some of our selfâ€hoping that the other will visualize us and interpret our meaning as we do. 4.Identify the relationship between list and effective oral examination communication a.The Three Myths about listen\r\ni. auditory sense is a natural process.- If you believe that listen occurs naturally, like breathing, indeed it follows that you never need to learn how to do it. Listening is a skill just like tearaway(a) a golf ball or pocket a rifle. You develop the skill just as you would any other skill. ii.Listening is the same as proveing.- interview is a natural process, but as we tell above, perceive is a skill that we develop. We can train ourselves to â€Å"not listen” or to listen selectively. iii.Listening is the same as paying attention.- Many times we belie to listen when we really are not. The receiver of the communication must indicate to the speaker that he is beingness heard and understood. The receiver indicates attention through both(prenominal) verbal and nonverbal indicators. b.Overview\r\ni.Let’s look at sense of hearing from a different approach, in relation to iv cases of internal and external responses to spoken messages. These responses go astray from very casual, almost accidental, to very deliberate and purpose-made types of responses. They are not orderly stages that you go through when comprehend, nor a sequence that must be followed. All or only a few of these whitethorn occur within one set of sense of hearing transaction, or they may be skipped or types may be applied in any sequence. The four types are reflex, content, relational or restless, and introspective listening. c.Type I, reflex response Listening\r\ni.A very basic kind of listening involving little more than hearing and a deferred payment that some noise has come to you. Reflex listening is very common in social settings, classrooms, univ erse settings, and in concerts. Reflex listening involves primarily â€Å" charge” noises where you can move out of danger, approach and draw prospective pleasant experiences, but stay tuned to hear other important messages should they occur. d.Type II, Content Listening\r\ni.This type of listening is the one most frequently referred to when teachers and managers (leaders) ping â€Å"poor” listening. Learning in school, receiving instructions on the job, getting information about what to do and how to splinter your life, are all involved in the content level. You listen to learn and to understand and to somehow apply information. An important dimension of contentâ€type listening is an ability to detect which messages are accurate, useful, sound, truthful, reliable, and relevant. e.Type III, Relational Listening\r\ni.Listening is important not only in relation to getting the content of the message called â€Å"deliberative listening” but also in another d imension called â€Å"empathic listening.” This empathic dimension to listening includes active listening. Active listening reflects a whole preference to life and to peopleâ€one which implies that to listen is to devote the creative power to imagine how it would make sense to say what the other person is saying. It says that the other person (the speaker) is fundamentally important and worth listening to. How do you â€Å"do” active listeningâ€by listening to a person without passing judgment on what is being said, and mirroring back what has been said to indicate that you understand the feelings the speaker was putting across. Effective communication is acquit to happen when threats have been removed. By the mirroring process, you help install a climate in which you can be accepting, noncritical, and nonâ€moralizing. f.Type IV, introspective listening\r\ni.Focus in this type of listening is on having something happen to the listener, not to the speaker. It may be the inner enjoyment of hearing poetry or music or spoken endearments. You experience something when you listen introspectively. Introspective listening has the quality of listening with a very open mind, but it also has the fantastic quality of applying your own deep understanding of your personal commitments and of the persuasion process as you evaluate the speakers’ messages.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

'Guidance and Counselling Thesis\r'

' worldwide focal point computer governmental platforms That Work II Norman Gysbers and Patricia Henderson A deterrent typesetters case worldwide concentreing Program Chapter 1 Norman C. Gysbers The Comprehensive counselling Program lay force in this chapter had its genesis in the early 1970s. In 1972, the lag of a feder each(prenominal)y funded project at the University of moment-Columbia conducted a national conference on cathexising and turn come to the fore a manual of arms to be apply by relegate counselling leaders as a sop up to separateing their ingest manuals for state and topical anaesthetic domesticate soil utilisation.\r\nThe manual was published in early 1974 and provided the original description of the Comprehensive commission Program sticker. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the send preference to instruction dominated master training and convention in our nurtures. The focus was on a office ( prop unitynt) and a military opera tion (direction), non on a political platform ( charge). Administratively, counsellor, with its place taste, was take in domesticate-age child force- protrude usefulnesss on with early(a)(a) much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) operate as attendance, social rifle, psychological, psychiatric, speech and hearing, nursing, and health check (Eckerson & Smith, 1966).\r\nThe position orientation had its beginnings when focusing was starting signal- social class introduced in the enlightens as vocational instruction. As early as 1910, vocational proponents had been appointed in the principal(a) and thirdhand leaves of Boston, and by 1915 a rudimentary fortune subdivision of Vocational charge had been schematic with a director, Susan J. Ginn. The vocational counselors in Boston were t singularlyers who took on the unravel with no monetary return and often no whollyayer from some other duties (Ginn, 1924). What were the duties of vocational counselors? The Duties of a Vocational pleader: 1.\r\nTo be the representative of the De sortment of Vocational way in the territorial dominion; 2. To attend all puckerings of counselors called by the director of Vocational Guidance; 3. To be amen up to(p) for all material sent out to the naturalize by the Vocational Guidance De adjourniallyitioningment; 4. To tuck and keep on file occupational tuition; 5. To arrange with the topical anesthetic branch librarians active shelves of books pram upon educational and vocational counselor-at-law; 6. To arrange for just intimately lessons in occupations in connection with classes in spoken English and Vocational Civics, or whitherver foreland and counselor deem it wise; 7.\r\nTo recommend that teachers aim the dealingship of their employ to occupational problems; 8. To interview cultivate mean solar mean solar day-age childs in grads 6 and above who argon failing, attempt to image the reason, and su ggest remedy. 9. To make believe use of the cumulative immortalise card when advising children; 10. To confer records of intelligence tests when advising children; 11. To make a c atomic number 18ful write up with post 7 and grade 8 of the bulletin â€Å"A Guide to the pick of Secondary indoctrinate”; 12. To urge children to remain in coach; 13. To recommend conferences with p bents of children who atomic number 18 failing or leaving coach; 14.\r\nTo interview and check card game of all children leaving school day, do light-headed to them the awaitments for obtaining realizeing certificates; 15. To be responsible for the filling in of blanched 249 and communicate with recommendations to the De severalisement of Vocational Guidance when children be in get of employment. (Ginn, 1924, pp. 5-7) As much and more positions titled vocational counselor were filled in schools crossways the consistence politic, concern was expressed astir(predicate) the miss of centralization, the lack of a unified architectural cast.\r\nIn a freshen up of the Boston dust, Brewer (1922) state that work was â€Å"commendable and promising” (p. 36). At the identical age, however, he expressed concern about the lack of powerful centralization: In most schools two or more teachers atomic number 18 allowed part-time for advocate individualistics, tho there seems to be no mission of cooperation in the midst of the several schools, and no attempt to supervise the work. It is puff up d iodine or indifferently done, app arntly gibe to the interest and enthusiasm of the individual principal or counselor. p. 35) Myers (1923) made the same point when he stated that â€Å"a centralized, unified course of instruction of vocational steerage for the blameless school of a city is intrinsic to the most effective work” (p. 139). The lack of a centralized and unified computer chopine of counselor in the schools to define and focus the wo rk of vocational counselors presented a serious problem. If there was no agreed-upon, centralized social complex body part to organize and direct the work of building-level vocational counselors, thence â€Å"other duties as assigned” could give-up the ghost a problem.\r\nAs early as 1923 this problem was recognized by Myers (1923). Another tendency dangerous to the pull in of vocational instruction is the tendency to load the vocational counselor with so some duties foreign to the office that little existent pleader quarter be done. The principal, and often the counselor himself, has a very noncommittal idea of the proper duties of this vernal office. The counselor’s time is more free from definite assignments with classs or classes of pupils than is that of the ordinary teacher.\r\nIf salubrious chosen he has administrative ability. It is perfectly natural, therefore, for the principal to assign one administrative handicraft after another to the counse lor until he comes practically pay heedantant principal, with little time for the real work of a counselor. (p. 141) During the 1920s and 1930s, as dinner dress education was being shaped and reshaped as to its character reference in society, a ampleer rush for education emerged. Added to the educational mission was a vocational mission. How did education serve to these additional tasks and challenges?\r\n adept response was to add pupil force play work to the education outline. What was pupil force-out work? According to Myers (1935), â€Å"pupil soulnel department work is a sort of handmaiden of construct education. It is touch originally with bringing the pupils of the club into the educational surroundings of the schools in much(prenominal) condition and under chance as forget enable them to obtain the upper limit of the desired maturation” (p. 804). In his article, Myers (1935) contrasted pupil someonenel work and personnel work in industry.\r\nH e then he ard eight activities he would include in pupil personnel work and the personnel who would be abstruse, including attendance officers, visiting teachers, school nurses, school physicians, as well as vocational counselors. In his treatment of all the activities knotty in pupil personnel work and the personnel involved, he stated that â€Å" in all probability no activity in the entire list suffers so much from lack of a co-ordinated course of studys as does bring offment, and e exceptionally the rede part of it” (p. 807).\r\nIn the late 1920s, in response to the lack of an organized approach to focus, the work posture of commission was initiated to guide the work of individuals designated as counselors. Various liaison were determine as necessary to provide to scholars, including the individual ancestry service, education service, focus service, describement service, and follow-up service (Smith, 1951). By this time too, the handed-down way of de scribing focal point as having third aspects †vocational, educational, and private-social †was well established.\r\nVocational shopping nerve centreing, sort of of being counseling, had turn over all one part of counsel. By the 1940s and 1950s, steering was firmly established as a part of pupil personnel service with its emphasis on the position of counselor. get down in the 1960s, yet curiously in the 1970s, the idea of focus for culture emerged. During this period, the call came to re-orient focusing from what had begin an ancillary set of function delivered by a person in a position (the counselor) to a spatiotemporal, receiveingal broadcast.\r\nThe call for reorientation came from diverse sources, including a re naturaled interest in vocational- bread and butter centering (and its abstractive base, calling maturation), a re naked as a jaybirded interest in trainmental focussing, concern about the efficacy of the habitual approach to guid ance in the school, and concern about accountability and evaluation. The work of type conniption door-to-door guidance classs into place in the schools passd in the 1980s. Increasingly, educate sets began to be translated into practical, workable political platforms to be utilise in the schools.\r\nAs we near the close of the 1990s, house-to-house guidance computer broadcastmes be rapidly encompassing the position orientation to guidance. Comprehensive guidance platforms argon becoming the major(ip) way of organizing and managing guidance in the schools crossways the country. This chapter begins with a brief critique of conventional organic lawal forms for guidance. Next, the training of a Comprehensive Guidance Program Model that had its genesis in the early 1970s is presented. The limit of the homunculus is exposit, ollowed by a presentation of the organise of the program, the executees utilize in the program, and the time allocations of stave necessary to remove out the program. Finally, there is discussion of the program resources required for the mildew if it is to function effectively. Traditional compositional Patterns By the 1960s, the evolution of guidance in the schools had reached a peak. The guidance provisions of the National Defense cultivation Act of 1958 ( semipublic Law 85-864) ca utilize the number of secondary winding counselors in schools to increase self-coloredly.\r\nLater, due to an expansion of the guidance provisions of the act, elemental guidance was stick outed and as a result, the number of dim-witted counselors in schools increased rapidly. Counselors put their expertise to work in schools where tether conventional organizational patterns for guidance were prevalent, often under the administrative complex body part called pupil personnel services or scholar services; the services model, the dish model, or the duties model. In many schools, combinations of these 3 approaches were apply. work The ervices model had its origins in the 1920s and consists of organizing the activities of counselors nighwhat major services including assessment, training, counseling, organization and follow-up. Although the activities that ar usually listed under each of these services are important and useful, it is a check model for cardinal reasons. First, it is primarily oriented to secondary schools. Second, it does not land itself easily to the identification of disciple outcomes. And third, it does not delimit how the time of counselors should be allocated. Processes The process model had its origins in the 1940s.\r\nIt emphasizes the clinical and therapeutic aspects of counseling, specially the processes of counseling, consulting, and coordinating. This model is appealing because it is equally applicable to elementary and secondary counselors. However, the process model has some of the same limitations as the services model: It does not lend itself easily to the identifi cation of pupil outcomes and it does not specify allocations of counselor time. Duties Often, instead of describing some organizational pattern such as the services model or the process model, counselor duties are simply listed (duties model).\r\nsometimes these lists contain as many as 20-30 duties and the stand up duty is often â€Å"and perform other duties as assigned from time to time. ” Although equally applicable to elementary school and secondary school counselors, student outcomes are difficult to identify and counselor time is almost im doable to allocate effectively. Position Oriented rather Than Program Focused One result of these traditional organizational patterns has been to emphasize the position of the counselor, not the program of guidance. Over the years, as guidance evolved in the schools, it became position oriented rather than program focused.\r\nAs a result, guidance was an ancillary stand-in service in the eyes of many people. This pattern placed counselors in the world-class place in a remedial-reactive authority †a role that is not seen as mainstream in education. What was worse, this pattern reinforced the practice of counselors performing many administrative-clerical duties because these duties could be defended as being â€Å"of service to somebody. ” Because of the lack of an adequate organization modelling, guidance had become an undefined program. Guidance had become the add-on profession, date counselors were seen as the â€Å"you-might-as-well” conclave (â€Å" age you are oing this task, you might as well do this one too”). Because of the absence of a clear organizational framework for guidance, it was easy to assign counselors new duties. Counselors had flexible schedules. And, since time was not a consideration, wherefore worry about removing new duties when new ones were added? antecedent of the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model In October of 1969, the University of momen t-Columbia conducted a national conference on course guidance, counseling and placement that led to regional conferences held across the country during the spring of 1970.\r\nThen in 1971, the University of Missouri-Columbia was awarded a U. S. Office of gentility grant under the boot of Norman C. Gysbers to assist each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto anti-racketeering law in development models or guides for implementing rush guidance, counseling and placement programs in their local schools. Project ply in Missouri conducted a national conference in St. Louis in January of 1972 and developed a manual (Gysbers & Moore, 1974) to be used by the states as they developed their own guides.\r\nThe manual that was published in February of 1974 provided the first description of an organizational framework for the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model that was to be refined in later work (Gysbers, 1978; Gysbers & Henderson, 1994; Gysbers & Moore, 1981; Hargens & Gysbers, 1984). The original organizational framework for the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model contained three interrelated categories of functions, and on-call functions. The political platform-based division brought in concert those guidance activities which took place primarily in the context of regularly plan courses of study in an educational setting.\r\nThese activities were a part of regular school subjects or were organized more or less special topics in the form of units, mini courses, or modules. They were based on necessity statements and translated into finales and objectives and activities necessary for the development of all students. Typical topics focused on self- spirit, social relationships, decision making, and randomness about the education, work, and leisure worlds. indoctrinate counselors were involved directly with students done and through class instruction, group processes, or individual discussions.\r\nIn other instances, school counse lors worked directly and cooperatively with teachers, providing resources and reference book. several(prenominal) facilitation functions included those dictatorial activities of the broad guidance program designed to assist students in monitoring and meeting their development in regard to their individualisedised, educational, and occupational goals, values, abilities, aptitudes, and interests. educate counselors served in the qualification of â€Å"advisers,” â€Å"learner managers,” or â€Å"development specialists. Personalized fall into place and closeness were emphasize instead of superficial refer with each student once a year to fill out a schedule. The functions in this category provided for the accountability necessitateful in an educational setting to ensure that students’ uniqueness remained intact and that educational resources were used to facilitate their biography manners history development. On-call functions focused on direct , agile responses to students ask such as information quest, crisis counseling, and teacher/parent/specialist consultation.\r\nIn addition, on-call functions were positive of the political program-based and individual facilitation functions. Adjunct guidance faculty ( peers, para sea captains, and volunteers/ last staff) aided school counselors in carrying out on-call functions. Peers were involved in tutorial programs, orientation activities, ombudsman centers, and (with special training) cross-age counseling and leading in informal dialogue centers. Paraprofessionals and volunteers provided message(prenominal) services in placement and followup activities, community liaison, course information centers, and club leadership activities.\r\nThe 1974 recitation of the model focused on the importance of counselor time usage by featuring â€Å"time dispersion wheels” to show how counselors’ time could be distributed to carry out a developmental guidance program. A chart was provided to show how counselors’ time could be distributed across a typical school week using the three categories as organizers. REFINEMENTS TO THE universal counselor PROGRAM mystify In 1978, Gysbers described refinements that had been made to the model since 1974. By 1978, the focus was on a total extensive, developmental guidance program.\r\nIt included the following elements: translation, rationale, assumptions, message model, and process model. The topic model described the knowledge and skills that students would flummox with the help of activities in the guidance program. The process model grouped the guidance activities and processes used in the program into quatern interrelated categories: programme-based processes, individual-development processes, on-call responsive processes, and systems deliver processes. It is evoke to note the changes that had been made between 1974 and 1978 in the model.\r\nThe concepts of definition, rationale, and assumptions had been added. The model itself was now organized into two parts. The first part listed the content to be learned by students, dapple the second part organized into four categories the guidance activities and processes occupyed in a program. The category of individual facilitation was changed to individual development, the word responsive was added to on-call, and a new category †systems backup man †was added. Also in 1978, Gysbers described sevener steps required to â€Å"remodel a guidance program while living in it”: 1. Decide you want to change. 2. Form work groups. . judge genuine programs. 4. Select program model. 5. Compare current program with program model. 6. Establish transition timetable. 7. Evaluate. amid 1978 and 1981, further refinements were made in the model. These refinements appeared in up(p) Guidance Programs by Gysbers and Moore (1981). By then, the basic complex body part of the model was established. The basis â€Å"con tent model” and â€Å"process model” had been dropped. Also, the steps for remodeling a guidance program, first delineated in 1978, formed the buttocks for the organization the chapters in astir(p) Guidance Programs and were described in detail.\r\nBetween 1981 and 1988, the model was being used by state departments of education and local school districts with change magnitude frequency. During these years, two school districts in particular became involved: St. Joseph School District, St. Joseph, Missouri and Northside separate School District, San Antonio, Texas. Hargens and Gysbers (1984), constitution in The School Counselor, presented a case study of how the model was implemented in the St. Joseph School District. The work in the Northside Independent School District became the basis for much of the most recent description of the model (Gysbers & Henderson, 1994).\r\nAs the 1980s progressed, a number of states and a number of additional school districts a cross the country began to adapt the model to fit their selects. In 1988, the first magnetic declination of Gysbers and Henderson’s book Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program was published by the American draw for Counseling and Development, AACD (now the American Counseling Association, ACA). development the framework of the model presented in 1981, Gysbers and Henderson expanded and across-the-board the model substantially.\r\nBuilding upon the experiences of a number of local school districts and states and with particular emphasis on the experiences of the Northside Independent School District, the training, design, implementation, and evaluation phases of the model were elaborated upon in much more detail. Sample forms, procedures, and methods, particularly those from Northside, were used extensively to illustrate the model and its implementation. The second edition of the book Developing and Managing Your School Guidance Program by Gysbers and Hende rson was published in 1994.\r\nDESCRIPTION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE GUIDANCE PROGRAM MODEL Conceptual mental hospital The perspective of military man development that serves as the ass for the model and as a basis for identifying the guidance knowledge, skills, and attitudes (competencies) that students need to master is called livelihood livelihood development. flavor race development is defined as self-development everywhere a person’s livelihood cross through the integration of the roles, setting, and events in a person’s manners. The word life in the definition indicates that the focus of this conception of human development is on the total person †the human life.\r\nThe word life history identifies and relates the many often varied roles that individuals assume (student, worker, consumer, citizen, parent); the settings in which individuals find themselves (home, school, community); and the events that come in over their lifetimes (entry job, marria ge, divorce, retirement). The word development is used to indicate that individuals are always in the process of becoming. When used in sequence, the words life career development bring these separate meat words together, but at the same time a greater meaning evolves.\r\n feel career development describes total individuals †unique individuals, with their own lifestyles (Gysbers & Moore, 1974, 1975, 1981). The meaning of the word career in the phrase life career development differs substantially from the usual definition of the term. biography focuses on all aspects of life as interrelated parts of the whole person. The term career, when viewed from this broad perspective, is not a synonym for occupation. People deplete careers; the marketplace has occupations. Unfortunately, too many people use the word career when they hould use the word occupation. every people stomach careers †their lives are their careers. Finally, the words, life career development do not d elineate and describe only one part of human emergence and development. Although it is useful to focus at times on different neighborhoods (e. g. , physiologic, emotional, and intellectual), it is similarly necessary to integrate these areas. emotional state career development is an organizing and integrating concept for rationality and facilitating human development. Wolfe and Kolb (1980) summed up the life view of career development as follows:\r\nCareer development involves one’s whole life, not just occupation. As such, it concerns the whole person, needs and wants, capacities and potentials, excitements and anxieties, insights and blind spots, warts and all. More than that, it concerns his/her life. The purlieu pressures and constraints, the bonds that tie him/her to significant others, responsibilities to children and aging parents, the total structure of one’s deal are in any case factors that mustiness be understood and reckoned with, in these terms, career development and personal development converge.\r\nSelf and circumstances †evolving, changing, unfolding in mutual inter carry through †implant the focus and the drama of career development. (pp. 1-2) COMPREHENSIVE GUIDANCE PROGRAM MODEL ELEMENTS The model program (see work 1. 1) consists of three elements: content, organizational framework, and resources. CONTENT There are many usages today of content (student knowledge and skills) for guidance. The content is generally organized around areas or domains such as career, educational, and personal-social. Most often, the content is stated in a student competency format.\r\nFor purposes of this chapter, the three domains of human development that are featured in the life career development concept are presented here: self-knowledge and interpersonal skills; life roles, setting and events; and life career intend (Gysbers & Henderson, 1994; Gysbers & Moore, 1974, 1981). Student competencies are generated fr om these domains to provide example program content for the model. Self-knowledge and Interpersonal Skills In the self-knowledge and interpersonal skills domain of life career development, the focus is on helping students understand themselves and others.\r\nThe main concepts of this domain focus on students’ awareness and word sense of themselves, their awareness and acceptance of others, and their development of interpersonal skills. Within this domain, students begin to develop an awareness of their interpersonal characteristics †interests, aspirations, and abilities. Students learn techniques for self-appraisal and the analysis of their personal characteristics in terms of a real-ideal self-continuum. They begin to fashion plans for self-improvement in such areas as physical and mental health.\r\n individualistics become knowledgeable about the synergetic relationship of self and environment in such a way that they develop personal standards and a sense of purpose in life. Students learn how to create and maintain relationships and develop skills that allow for beneficial interaction within those relationships. They can use self-knowledge in life career think. They accommodate positive interpersonal relations and are self-directed in that they accept business for their own behavior. See Figure 1. 1 under The model program consists of three elements: content, organizational framework, and resources.\r\nComprehensive Guidance Program Elements Content Organizational Framework, Activities, while Resources COMPETENCIES • • • Student Competencies Grouped by domains STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS • explanation • Assumptions • Rational PROGRAM COMPONENTS SAMPLE PROCESSES Guidance platform Structured Groups Classroom presentations mortal provision weighing Assessment Placement & Follow-up • antiphonal Services Individual counseling Small group counseling audience Referral ashes promote Management act ivities Consultation Community outreach universe relations • • RESOURCES • valet • fiscal • Political SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL COUNSELOR age Elementary School 35-45% 5-10% 30-40% 10-15% Middle/Junior School 25-35% 15-25% 30-40% 10-15% High School 15-25% 25-35% 25-35% 15-20% Guidance Curriculum Individual Planning responsive Services System Support Life Roles, Settings, and Events The emphasis in this domain of life career development is on the interrelatedness of divers(a) life roles (learner, citizen, consumer), settings (home, school, work, and community), and events (job entry, marriage, retirement) in which students participate over the life span.\r\nEmphasis is given to the knowledge and understanding of the sociological, psychological, and economical dimensions and structure of their worlds. As students explore the different aspects of their roles, they learn how stereotypes affect their own lives and others’ lives. The implica tions of futuristic concerns is examined and related to their current lives. Students learn the potential impact of change in modern society and the necessity of being able to project themselves into the future.\r\nIn this way, they begin to predict the future, prognosticate alternatives they whitethorn choose, and plan to meet the requirements of the life career alternatives they whitethorn choose. As a result of schooling about the multiple options and dimensions of their worlds, students understand the reciprocal influences of life roles, settings, and events, and they can consider mixed lifestyle patterns. Life Career Planning The life career plan domain in life career development is designed to help students understand that decision making and training are important tasks in free-and-easy life and to recognize the need for life career planning.\r\nStudents learn about the many occupations and industries in the work world and of their groupings according to occupational req uirements and characteristics, as well as learning about their own personal skills, interests, values, and aspirations. Emphasis is placed on students’ learning of various rights and responsibilities associated with their involvement in a life career. The central focus of this domain is on the mastery of decision-making skills as a part of life career planning. Students develop skills in this area by learning the elements of the decision-making process.\r\nThey develop skills in gathering information from relevant sources, both(prenominal) external and internal, and learn to use the collected information in making informed and reasoned decisions. A major aspect of this process involves the appraisal of personal values as they whitethorn relate to likely plans and decisions. Students engage in planning activities and begin to understand that they can influence their future by applying such skill. They accept responsibility for making their own choices, for managing their own resources, and for directing the future course of their own lives.\r\norganisational FRAMEWORK The model program (see Figure 1. 1) contains seven regions organized around two major categories: morphological components and program components (Gysbers & Henderson, 1994; Gysbers & Moore, 1981). The three structural components describe the student focus of the program and how the program connects to other educational programs (definition), offer reasons why the program is important and needed (rational), and provide the premises upon which the program rests (assumptions).\r\nThe four program components delineate the major activities and the roles and responsibilities of personnel involved in carrying out the guidance program. These four program elements are as follows: guidance broadcast, individual planning, responsive services, and system mount. Structural Components Definition The program definition includes the mission statement of the guidance program and its centrali ty within the school district’s total educational program. It delineates the competencies that individuals will possess as a result of their involvement in the program, summarizes the components, and identifies the program’s clientele.\r\nRational The rationale discusses the importance of guidance as an equal supply in the educational system and provides reasons why students need to acquire the competencies that will accrue as a result of their involvement in a comprehensive guidance program. Included are conclusions drawn from student and community needs assessments and statements of the goals of the local school district. Assumptions Assumptions are the principles that shape and guide the program.\r\nThey include statements regarding the contributions that school counselors and guidance programs make to students’ development, the premises that undergird the comprehensiveness and the match record of the program, and the relationships between the guidance pro gram and the other educational programs. Program Components An examination of the needs of students, the flesh of guidance methods, techniques, and resources lendable, and the increases expectations of policy-makers and consumers indicates that a new structure for guidance programs in the schools is needed.\r\nThe position orientation organized around the traditional services (information, assessment, counseling, placement, and follow-up) and three aspects (educational, personal-social, and vocational) of guidance is no protracted adequate to carry the needed guidance activities in today’s schools. When cast as a position and organized around services, guidance is often seen as ancillary and only substantiative to instruction, rather than equal and complementary. The â€Å"three aspects” view of guidance frequently has resulted in fragmented and eventoriented activities and, in some instances, the creation of separate kinds of counselors.\r\nFor example, educationa l guidance is stressed by academic-college counselors, personalsocial guidance becomes the territory of mental health counselors, and vocational guidance is the focus of vocational counselors. If the traditional structures for guidance in the schools are no longer adequate, what structure is needed? One way to exercise this question is to ask and answer the following questions: argon all students in need of specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are the instructional province of guidance programs? Do all students need supporter with their personal, educational, and occupational plans?\r\nDo some students require special assistance in transaction with developmental problems and immediate crises? Do educational programs in the school and the staff involved require support that can be outflank supplied by school counselors? An positive answer to these four questions implies a structure that is different from the traditional position model. A recap of the class of guidance methods, techniques, and resources available today and an understanding of the expectations of national and state policy-makers and consumers of guidance also suggests the needs for a different model.\r\nThe structure suggested by an affirmative answer to the four questions and by a review of the literature is a program model of guidance techniques, methods, and resources organized around four interactive program components: guidance computer program, individual planning, responsive services, and system support (Gysbers & Henderson, 1994; Gysbers & Moore, 1981). The curriculum component was chosen because a curriculum provides a vehicle to impart guidance content to all students in a systematic way.\r\nIndividual planning was included as a part of the model because of the increasing need for all students to systematically plan, monitor, and manager their development and to consider and take action on their next steps personally, educationally, and occupationally. The re sponsive services component was included because of the need to scatter to the direct, immediate concerns of students, whether these concerns involve crisis counseling, referral, or consultation with parents, teachers, or other specialists.\r\nFinally, the system support component was included because, if the other guidance processes are to be effective, a variety of support activities such as staff development, explore, and curriculum development are required. Also, system support encompasses the need for the guidance program to provide appropriate support to other programs in including assuming â€Å"fair region” responsibilities in operating the school. These components, then, serve as organizers for the many guidance methods, techniques, and resources required in a comprehensive guidance program.\r\nIn addition, they also serve as a check on the comprehensiveness of the program. A program is not comprehensive unless counselors are providing activities to students, par ents, and staff in all four program components. Guidance Curriculum This model of guidance is based on the assumption that guidance programs include content that all students should learn in a systematic, sequential way. In order for this to happen, counselors must be involved in teaching, aggroup teaching, or share as a resource for those who teach a guidance curriculum.\r\nThis is not a new idea; the notion of guidance curriculum has deep, historical roots. What is new however, is the array of guidance and counseling techniques, methods, and resources currently available that work best as part of a curriculum. Also new is the concept that a comprehensive guidance program has an organized and sequential curriculum. The guidance curriculum typically consists of student competencies (organized by domain) and organize activities presented systematically through such strategies as the following: • Classroom Activities\r\nCounselors teach, team teach, or support the teaching of guidance curriculum learning activities or unites in classrooms. Teachers also may teach such units. The guidance curriculum is not limited to being part of only one or two subjects but should be included in as many subjects as possible throughout the total school curriculum. These activities may be conducted in the classroom, guidance center, or other school facilities. • Group Activities Counselors organize large-group sessions such as career days and educational/college/vocational days.\r\nOther members of the guidance team, including teachers and administrators, may be involved in organizing and conducting such sessions. Although counselors’ responsibilities include organizing and implementing the guidance curriculum, the cooperation and support of the entire staff are necessary for its successful implementation. Individual Planning Concern for individual student development in a complex society has been a prat of the guidance movement since the days of Frank Par sons. In recent years the concern for individual student development has intensified as society has become more complex.\r\nThis concern is manifested in many ways, but perhaps is expressed most succinctly in a frequently stated guidance goal: â€Å"Helping all students become the persons they are competent of becoming. ” To accomplish the purposes of this component of the Model, activities and procedures are provided to assist students in understanding and periodically monitoring their development. Students come to terms with their goals, values, abilities, aptitudes, and interests (competencies) so they can continue to progress educationally and occupationally.\r\nCounselors become â€Å"person-development-and-placement specialists. ” Individual planning consists of activities that help students to plan, monitor, and manage their own learning and their personal and career development. The focus is on assisting students, in close collaboration with parents, to develo p, analyze, and rate their educational, occupational, and personal goals and plans. Individual planning is implemented through such strategies as: • Individual Appraisal Counselors assist students to assess and interpret their abilities, interests, skills, and achievement.\r\nThe use of test information and other data about students is an important part of helping them develop immediate and long-range goals and plans. • Individual Advisement Counselors assist students to use self-appraisal information along with personal-social, educational, career, and labor market information to help them plan and realize their personal, educational, and occupational goals. • Placement Counselors and other educational personnel assist students to make the transition from school to work or to additional education and training.\r\nResponsive Services Problems relating to academic learning, personal identity issues, drugs, and peer and family relationships are increasingly a part o f the educational scene. Crisis counseling, diagnostic and remediation activities, and consultation and referral must continue to be included as an ongoing part of a comprehensive guidance program. In addition, a chronic need exists for the guidance program to respond to the immediate information-seeking needs of students, parents, and teachers.\r\nThe responsive services component organizes guidance techniques and methods to respond to these concerns and needs as they occur; it is supportive of the guidance curriculum and individual planning components as well. Responsive services consist of activities to meet the immediate needs and concerns of students, teachers, and parents, whether these needs or concerns require counseling, consultation, referral, or information. Although counselors shoot special training and possess skills to respond to immediate needs and concerns, the cooperation and support of the entire faculty are necessary for this component’s successful impleme ntation.\r\nResponsive services are implemented through such strategies as: • Consultation Counselors consult with parents, teachers, other educators, and community agencies regarding strategies to help students deal with and resolve personal, educational, and career concerns. • Personal Counseling Counseling is provided on a small-group and individual basis for students who have problems or difficulties dealing with relationships, personal concerns, or normal developmental tasks. The focus is on assisting students to identify problems and causes, alternatives, possible consequences, and to take action when appropriate. • Crisis Counseling\r\nCounseling and support are provided to students or their families facing emergency situations. Such counseling is normally short term and temporary in nature. When necessary, appropriate referral sources are used. • Referral Counselors use other professional resources of the school and community to refer students when ap propriate. These referral sources may include: mental health agencies employment and training programs vocational rehabilitation juvenile services social services special school programs (special or compensatory education) The responsive services component also provides for small-group counseling.\r\nSmall groups of students with similar concerns can be helped by intensive small-group counseling. All students may not need such assistance, but it is available in a comprehensive program. Adjunct guidance staffâ€peers, paraprofessionals, volunteersâ€can aid counselors in carrying out their responsive activities. Peers can be involved in tutorial programs, orientation activities, ombudsman functions and, with special training, cross-age counseling and leadership in informal dialog. Paraprofessionals and volunteers can provide assistance in such areas as placement, follow-up, and community-school-home liaison activities.\r\nSystem Support The administration and management of a comp rehensive guidance program require an ongoing support system. That is why system support is a major program component. Unfortunately, it is often over fonted or only minimally appreciated. And yet, the system support component is as important as the other three components. Without continuing support, the other three components of the guidance program are ineffective. This component is implemented and carried out through such activities as the following: • Research and Development\r\nGuidance program evaluation, follow-up studies, and the continued development and modify of guidance learning activities are some examples of the research and development work of counselors. • Staff/Community Public Relations The orientation of staff and the community to the comprehensive guidance program through the use of newsletters, local media, and school and community presentations are examples of public relations work. • Professional Development Counselors must regularly modify their professional knowledge and skills.\r\nThis may include club in school inservice training, attendance at professional meetings, completion of postgraduate course work, and contributions to the professional literature. • deputation/Advisory jurys Serving on departmental curriculum committees and community committees or advisory boards are examples of activities in this area. • Community Outreach Included in this area are activities designed to help counselors become knowledgeable about community resources, employment opportunities, and the local labor market. This may involve counselors visiting local businesses and industries and social services agencies. Program Management and Operations This area includes the planning and management tasks needed to support the activities of a comprehensive guidance program. Also included in the system support component are activities that support programs other than guidance. These activities may include counselors being invol ved in helping interpret student test results to teachers, parents, and administrators, serving on departmental curriculum committees (helping interpret student needs data for curriculum revision), and working with school administrators (helping interpret student needs and behaviors).\r\nCare must be taken, however, to watch the time given to these duties because the particular focus for counselors is their work in the first three components of the comprehensive guidance program. It is important to realize that if the guidance program is well run, focusing heavily on the first three components, it will provide substantial support for other programs and personnel in the school and the community. Program Time Counselors’ professional time is a critical element in the Model. How should professional informed counselors spend their time?\r\nHow should this time be pass on across the total program? In this Model, the four program components provide the structure for making judgm ents about appropriate allocations of counselors’ time. One criterion to be used in making such judgments is the concept of program balance. The assumption is that counselor time should be circularise across all program components, but particularly the first three. Another criterion is that different grade levels require different allocations of counselor time across the program components.\r\nFor example, at the elementary level, more counselor time is played out working in the curriculum with less time spent in individual planning. In the high school school, these time allocations are reversed. How counselors in a school district or school building plan and allocate their time depends on the needs of their students and their community. Once chosen, time allocations are not fixed forever. The purpose for making them is to provide direction to the program and to the administrators and counselors involved.\r\nSince the Model is a â€Å"100 part program,” 100 % of cou nselors’ time must be pass around across the four program components. Time allocations are changed as new needs arise, but zip new can be added unless something else is removed. The assumption is that professional counselors spend 100 % of their time on task, implementing the guidance program. What are some suggested percentages? As an example, the state of Missouri (Starr & Gysbers, 1997) has adopted suggested percentages of counselor time to be spent on each program component.\r\nThese suggested percentages were recommended by Missouri counselors and administrators who had participated in the field-testing of the Missouri adaptation of the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model: Percent ES M/JH HS Guidance Curriculum 35-45 25-35 15-25 Individual Planning 05-10 15-25 25-35 Responsive Services 30-40 30-40 25-35 System Support 10-15 10-15 15-20 Resources Human Human resources for the guidance program include such individuals as counselors, teachers, administrators, parent s, students, community members, and business and labor personnel.\r\nAll have roles to play in the guidance program. While counselors are the main providers of guidance and counseling services and coordinators of the program, the involvement, cooperation, and support of teachers and administrators is necessary for the program to be successful. The involvement, cooperation, and support of parents, community members, and business and labor personnel also is critical. A SchoolCommunity Advisory commission is recommended to bring together the natural endowment and energy of school and community personnel.\r\nThe School-Community Advisory Committee acts as a liaison between the school and community and provides recommendations concerning the needs of students and the community. A primary duty of this committee is to advise those involved in the guidance program. The committee is not a policy- or decision-making body; rather, it is a source of advice, counsel, and support and is a commu nicating link between those involved in the guidance program and the school and community. The committee is a imperishable part of the guidance program. A community person should be the chairperson.\r\nThe use and involvement of an advisory committee will vary according to the program and the community. It is important, however, that social station be more than in name only. Members will be particularly helpful in developing and implementing the public relations plan for the community. Financial The financial resources of a comprehensive guidance program are crucial to its success. Examples of financial resources include budget, material, equipment, and facilities. The Model highlights the need for these resources through its focus on the physical quad and equipment required to conduct a comprehensive program in a school district.\r\nTo make the guidance curriculum, individual planning, responsive services, and system support components function effectively, adequate guidance fa cilities are required. Traditionally, guidance facilities have consisted of an office or suite of offices designed primarily to provide one-to-one counseling or consultation assistance. Such arrangements have frequently included reply or waiting areas that serve as look for rooms where students have access to displays or files of educational and occupational information.\r\nAlso, this space has typically been placed in the administrative wing of the school so that the counseling staff can be near the records and the administration. The need for individual offices is obvious because of the continuing need to carry on individual counseling sessions. A need also exists, however, to open up guidance facilities and make them more sociable to all students, teachers, parents, and community members. One way to make guidance facilities more utile and accessible is to reorganize traditional space into a guidance center.\r\nA guidance center brings together available guidance information a nd resources and makes them easily accessible to students. The center is used for such activities as group sessions, student self-exploration, and personalized research and planning. At the high school level, students receive assistance in areas such as occupational planning, job entry and placement, financial aid information and postsecondary educational opportunities. At the elementary school level, students and their parents receive information about the school, the community, and parenting skills; they also read books about personal growth and development.\r\nAn area for play therapy can be provided in the guidance center. Although the center is available for use to school staff and community members, it is student centered, and many of the center activities are student planned as well as student directed. At the same time, the center is a valuable resource for teachers in their program planning and implementation. Employers, too, will find the center useful when seeking part-ti me or full-time workers. Clearly, the impact of the center on school and community can be substantial.\r\nIf community members and parents are involved in the planning and implementation of the center and its activities, their interest could provide an nerve impulse for the involvement of other community members. When parents and community members become involved in programs housed in the center, they experience the guidance program firsthand. Through these experiences, new support for the program may develop. The guidance center is furnished as comfortably as possible for all users. readiness is made for group as well as individual activities.\r\nCoordinating the operation of the guidance center is the responsibility of the guidance staff, but all school staff can be involved. It is recommended that at least(prenominal) one paraprofessional be a part of the staff to ensure that clerical tasks are carried out in a consistent and ongoing manner. Political Education is not simply i nfluenced by politics, it is politics. The mobilization of political resources is key to a successful guidance program. dependable endorsement of the guidance program by the Board of Education as a â€Å"program of studies of the district” is one example of mobilizing political resources.\r\nAnother example is a clear and concise school district policy statement that highlights the integral and central nature of the school district’s comprehensive guidance program to other programs in the school district. displace It All Together What does the Program Model look like when all of the Model’s elements are brought together? Figure 1 (see page 12) presents the Model on one page so that the three program elements can be seen in relationship to each other. Notice that the three program elements (program content, program structure, processes, and time, and program resources) represent the â€Å"means” of the program.\r\nWithout these means in place, it is impo ssible to achieve the full results of the program and to in full evaluate the impact of the program on the students, the school, and the community. somewhat Final Thoughts The Program Model, by definition, leads to guidance activities and structured group experiences for all students. It de-emphasizes administrative and clerical tasks, one-toone counseling only, and limited accountability. It is proactive rather than reactive. Counselors are worry and unavailable for unrelated administrative and clerical duties because they have a guidance program to implement.\r\nCounselors are expect to do personal and crisis counseling as well as provide structured activities to all students. To to the full implement the Program Model it is important that the program be as follows: 1. Understood as student-development oriented, not school maintenance-administrativeoriented. 2. Operated as a 100 % program; the four program components constitute the total program; there are no add-ons. 3. Start ed the first day of school and ended on the last day of school; not started in the middle of October with an terminal time in April so that administrative, nonguidance tasks can be completed. . Understood as program focused, not position focused. 5. Understood as education-based, not agency or clinic based. References Brewer, J. M. (1922). The vocational guidance movement: Its problems and possibilities. New York: The Macmillan Company. Eckerson, L. O. , & Smith, H. M. (1966). eye socket of pupil personnel services. Washington, DC: U. S. Government publish Office. Ginn, S. J. (1924). Vocational guidance in Boston Public Schools. The Vocational Guidance Magazine, 3, 3-7. Gysbers, N. C. (1978). Remodeling your guidance program while living in it.\r\nTexas Personnel and Guidance Association Journal, 6, 53-61. Gysbers, N. C. , & Henderson, P. (1994). Developing and managing your school guidance program (2nd ed. ). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Deve lopment. Gysbers, N. C. , & Moore, E. J. (1974). Career guidance, counseling and placement: Elements of an illustrative program guide (A life career development perspective). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, Columbia. Gysbers, N. C. , & Moore, E. J. (1975). Beyond career developmentâ€life career development. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 53, 647-652.\r\nGysbers, N. C. , & Moore, E. J. (1981). Improving guidance programs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hargens, M. , & Gysbers, N. C. (1984). How to remodel a guidance program while living in it: A case study. The School Counselor, 30, 119-125. Myers, G. E. (1923). Critical review of present developments in vocational guidance with special reference to future prospects. The Vocational Guidance Magazine, 2 (6), 139-142. Myers, G. E. (1935). Coordinated guidance: Some suggestions for a program of pupil personnel work. Occupations, 13 (9), 804-807. Smith G.\r\nE. (1951). Principles and practices of the g uidance program. New York: The Macmillan Company. Starr, M. F. , & Gysbers, N. C. (1997). Missouri comprehensive guidance: A model for program development, implementation and evaluation (1997 Rev. ). Jefferson city: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Wolfe, D. M. , & Kolb, D. A. (1980). Career Development, personal growth, and experimental learning. In J. W. Springer (Ed. ), Issues in career and human resource development (pp. 1-56). Madison, WI: American Society for Training and Development.\r\n'